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Enoch and Metatron

Note in this citation that Enoch was supposedly the recipient of secret knowledge from God:

Its only complete extant version is an Ethiopic translation of a Greek translation made in Palestine from the original Hebrew or Aramaic. Enoch, the great-grandfather of Noah and seventh patriarch in the book of Genesis, is one of the two people in the Bible taken up to heaven without dying (the other being Elijah) and the subject of abundant apocalyptic literature. At first revered only for his piety, he was later believed to be the recipient of secret knowledge from God, which manifests in the Book of Enoch’s concepts of heaven and hell, angels and demons, the messiah, the resurrection, a final judgment, and a heavenly kingdom on Earth. – From Yale University Library (link no longer online)

It should also be observed that the only complete text of the book of Enoch is a translation (Ethiopic) of a translation (Greek) of a translation (Hebrew or Aramaic). This source from Marquette University describes the so-called secret knowledge with more detail:

The tradition about Enoch as an expert in God’s secrets does not begin in 2 Enoch. Already in the earliest Enochic bookletes of 1 (Ethiopic) Enoch, the knowledge and the revelation of secrets become major functions of the elevated Enoch.[11] Later Enochic traditions also emphasize the role of Enoch as the “Knower of Secrets” (Myzr (dwy). According to 3 Enoch, Enoch-Metatron is able to behold “deep secrets and wonderful mysteries.”[12] In this Merkabah text Metatron is also responsible for transmitting the highest secrets to the Princes under him, as well as to humankind. H. Kvanvig observes that “in Jewish tradition Enoch is primarily portrayed as a primeval sage, the ultimate revealer of divine secrets.” [13]
Two recent important studies [14] in Enochic traditions trace the origin of the image of Enoch as a primeval sage preoccupied with divine secrets to some heroes of the Mesopotamian lore.
– From this page

It is clear that the Enochian writings are based on myths that Enoch was the recipient of secrets or secret teachings from God. This idea is contrary to the nature of God and contrary to Scripture. This also elevates the false Enoch of these books.

While God gave revelation to some of his prophets, like Daniel, which he told them not to disclose, nowhere is there any indication that Enoch was selected to receive secrets and mysteries undisclosed to anyone else, especially on such a vast scale. Nor is there a biblical account of Enoch returning to earth after being taken to heaven as found in the book of Enoch. This detail alone is sufficient to reject the account in the book of Enoch.

Moreover, no prophet received information contrary to Scripture, as the false Enoch did. The false Enoch of the book of Enoch minimizes and demeans the real Enoch commended by God in Hebrews 11.

Note the term Enoch-Metatron in the above quote. While Metatron is the name of an archangel in the gnostic Kabbalah, it is originally the name of an angel from Jewish mysticism found in the Enochian writings and elsewhere (one assumes the writers of the Kabbalah got the name “Metatron” from Jewish mysticism; they did not have access to any Enochian writings in the 13th and 14th centuries when much of the Kabbalah was written).

Metatron is mentioned in passages of the Babylonian Talmud, in mystical Kabbalistic texts, and in the apocryphal books of Enoch.  From 

Metatron has many functions in these writings and is identified with Enoch in some:

According to these writings, Metatron was once a human named Enoch, who is mentioned in the book of Genesis as a man who walked faithfully with God (though in one version, Metatron was never human, nor did he come from Enoch).
Enoch was taken to heaven without dying, where he was transformed into the angel Metatron and placed on a throne next to God’s throne. He became second only to God in terms of power, wisdom, and glory, and all the other angels obeyed him.
According to legend, Metatron is part of a select group of angels who are allowed to look upon God’s countenance. He is a heavenly scribe, as well as an advocate or heavenly priest for the people, a mediator between Israel and God. One legend says it was Metatron who led Israel through the wilderness.
Occult and New Age practices have continued the lore of Metatron.>
From link given above [For a detailed paper on this topic, see material from Marquette University].

Enoch becomes the angel Metatron and is the mediator between Israel and God. Several Metatron-Enoch statues are for sale on Amazon. The astounding description states:

According to Jewish medieval apocrypha, he [Metatron] is Enoch, ancestor of Noah, transformed into an angel. There are no references to Metatron as an angel in the Jewish Tanakh or Christian scriptures (New and Old Testament); however, Genesis 5:24 is often cited as evidence of Enoch’s bodily ascension into heaven — “And Enoch walked with God: and he was not; for God took him.” [2] Although he is mentioned in a few brief passages in the Talmud, Metatron appears primarily in medieval Jewish mystical texts and other post-scriptural esoteric and occult sources, such as the Books of Enoch–1 Enoch, 2 Enoch, and 3 Enoch. In Rabbinic tradition, he is the highest of the angels and serves as the celestial scribe.

All the statues of Enoch-Metatron on the Amazon site are holding what is known in occult magic as the Seal of Solomon (in some occult traditions Solomon practiced sorcery). What part of Scripture does this Enoch-Metatron comport with? Men do not become angels, and there is only one mediator, Jesus Christ, who is the only one who can reconcile men with God through his sacrifice, via faith; and is the only one who is the High Priest interceding for believers (1 Timothy 2:5; Hebrews 4:14).

Like all mystical and esoteric literature about God or anyone in Scripture, counterfeit figures are elevated and given significant (usually dramatic) roles. This also serves as an attempt to give these documents a noteworthy status.

Enoch and Magic

One of the main elements of ceremonial magic, devised by Dr. John Dee (1527-1609), is his claim to have received an angelic Enochian language. He used this language in magical rituals which continue today, and many occult books have been written on this.

Dee was looking to discover lost spiritual knowledge and recover the wisdom he believed was hidden in books of antiquity. Among these books was the then-fabled Book of Enoch , which he conceived as being a book describing the magic system used by the Patriarch in the Bible. From Ancient

This writer has been aware of this Enochian angelic language in her ministry, long before investigating the book of Enoch.

The Enochian texts are off-balance and esoteric. There is too much focus on angels, mysteries, and Enoch’s special status. In God’s word, the man Enoch is found in two short passages, one in Genesis 5 and the other in Hebrews 11 (aside from his mention by Jude). Although he was taken directly to God and is commended in Hebrews, his status is not above other prophets who played large roles in God’s plan, such as Abraham and Moses. And certainly the role of Enoch in the Bible is almost minor compared to his super glorified roles in Enochian texts where he receives the supposed revelations of God’s secrets.

Enochian Writings Contradict Scripture

The article “19 Reasons Why 1 Enoch Is Not in the Bible” gives the information that Section 1 of the book of Enoch includes Enoch’s intercession for the fallen angels. This is contrary to what God has revealed about such angels. Satan and his angels cannot be redeemed; they are condemned (John 12:31-32; Colossians 2:15; 2 Peter 2:4) and their end, according to Jesus, is the lake of fire (Matthew 25:41; also see Revelation 20:10). Why would a supposed prophet of God intercede for angels who rebelled with Satan? This fact and the date of this book are enough evidence alone that it is not from God.

The article lists 19 reasons why 1 Enoch is not part of Scripture, later explaining each one in detail. Under the 9th reason, “Enoch Contradicts Scripture,” can be found some specifics. It only takes one of these to justify rejecting Enochian writings as inspired scripture.

A further example of contradiction to Scripture is that, according to the book of Enoch, an angel named Uriel warned Noah of the Flood. This directly contradicts the biblical account in Genesis 6: 17-18 in which God is the one who speaks to Noah about the Flood:

Now behold, I Myself am bringing the flood of water upon the earth, to destroy all flesh in which there is the breath of life, from under heaven; everything that is on the earth shall perish. But I will establish My covenant with you; and you shall enter the ark–you, your sons, your wife, and your sons’ wives with you.

The false angel Uriel is part of the elaborate angelology found in Jewish mysticism warned of in the New Testament. The biblical canon only names two angels, the archangel Michael and the angel Gabriel (Satan is a title, not a proper name). There is no angel named Uriel.

Extra-Biblical Angelology

The focus on and roles of angels in 1 Enoch is deeply disturbing. Giving more information about angels than Scripture does, and being enthralled with angels, especially fallen angels, is strong indication that such teachings are false. We see a focus on angels in the New Age, in cults, in many pagan religions, and in what is called the folk beliefs of Roman Catholicism, Islam and others. This emphasis on angels is not a sign of inspired scripture, but actually is a signal that it is not from God.

Dr. Gentry points out that Syriac Christianity, for example, has a developed theology of angels that was influenced by the angelology of Jewish extra-biblical writings. The reason that Western Christianity was not influenced by this, suggests Dr. Gentry, is linguistic, that is, being cut off from the original languages of these texts about angels.

There is also an elaborate angelology in Islam, which apparently was influenced by the book of Watchers. The idea also exists that angels are responsible for evil in the world.

The genealogy of angels and myths is part of the warnings of Paul in 1 Timothy 4:6; 4:7; 6:4, 2 Timothy 2:23, Titus 3:9. Yet Enochian literature contains elaborate genealogies of angels.

The Son of Man

Another issue worth mentioning is that Enoch is addressed as the Messianic Son of Man in 1 Enoch 71:14.

71.14 And that Angel, came to me, and greeted me with his voice, and said to me: “You are the son of man who was born to righteousness, and righteousness remains over you, and the righteousness of the Head of Days will not leave you.”

71.15 And he said to me: “He proclaims peace to you, in the name of the world which is to come, for from there, peace has come out, from the creation of the world; and so you will have it, for ever, and for ever and ever.

71.16 And, all will walk according to your way, inasmuch as righteousness will never leave you. With you will be their dwelling, and with you their lot, and they will not be separated from you, for ever, and for ever and ever. From Andy McCracken, year 2020, original translation from Ge’ez to English by Prof. Michael A. Knibb, year 1978

Preceding passages about the Son of Man and the verses following this make it clear that it refers to a Messianic figure. A popular version by R. H. Charles emended the translation so that it is in third person (This is the son of man) rather than the first person in which Enoch is being addressed with this title (You are the son of man). However, this translation to the third person has been rejected and debunked by later scholars. In other words, 1 Enoch is calling Enoch a Messianic figure on whom righteousness abides and from whom it never departs (see the article explaining this).

While the title “son of man” itself is not always Messianic, as when Ezekiel is addressed this way and when Daniel is called son of man in Daniel 8:17, the “son of man” in those cases is used to emphasize their human nature and limitations. However. in the context of 1 Enoch, it is clear that the title “son of man” is Messianic because unique qualities of the Messiah are being linked to it. Neither Ezekiel nor Daniel were told anything like what Enoch is told in verses 14-16 quoted above. This is a serious conflict with the biblical canon and yet another indication of the unbiblical elevation of Enoch and of the anti-scriptural nature of 1 Enoch.

Final Points

Numerous people who find 1 Enoch fascinating and/or believe it should be in the Bible also appear fascinated with the supernatural (which is not spiritually healthy) and/or with occult concepts. That is not surprising given that 1 Enoch promotes the false idea that Enoch received vast bodies of secret knowledge from God, an idea patently opposed to the nature of God and to the Bible.

Secret teachings are hallmarks of occult and gnostic beliefs. Enochian writings support unbiblical myths and angelic genealogies, including the teaching that angels are the cause of corruption on earth, all of which are contrary to the biblical canon.

Many influenced by the book of Enoch believe sin is the fault of fallen angels (also noticeable in videos made by the Bible Project in conjunction with Dr. Heiser). Whoever the “sons of God” are in Genesis 6, the Flood did not happen because of anything angels did, but rather due to the “wickedness of man” (Genesis 6:5-7, 12-13).

Certainly the rebellion of angels plays a significant part in history and in many Bible passages. However, God holds man, and man alone, accountable for sin. No matter what fallen angels may do, man sins out of his own wicked will and desires. The idea of angels causing corruption and being the cause of man’s sin, even in part, is a very serious contradiction to Scripture.

Relying on writings that are not inspired by God as a basis for doctrine or beliefs is dangerous. Starting with such a foundation that is not only cracked, but whose cracks spread and widen into a compromised worldview and theology, will only end in false doctrines contrary to God’s truth.

[Note: I noticed that several books on Enoch, including the book of 1 Enoch with commentary, are by Joseph Lumpkin. Lumpkin has a “doctorate in the field of ministry from Battlefield Baptist Institute in Mississippi in 2002.”

I found that that this school is a “church-based” school with no accreditation (i.e., “Church-based, non-accredited fundamentalist Bible college in Vicksburg, Mississippi”). Moreover, Lumpkin has written a book on the Enneagram, “An Enneagram Primer: A Guide to Understanding Yourself and Others.” This adds up to a non-recommendation of Lumpkin’s books. For information on the false tool called the Enneagram, see CANA articles on the Enneagram].

Resources on the Enochian Writings

Dr. Doug Potter’s excellent and thorough talk on the Book of Enoch with slides

Dr. Potter’s paper on the topic

“The Putative Citation of Enoch in Jude” at Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary